The terms LFP, NMC, and NCA all refer to different chemistries commonly used in lithium secondary cells.
- LFP: lithium iron phosphate
- NMC: lithium nickel manganese cobalt
- NCA: lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide
Between 2015 to 2018 NMC pouch and prismatic cells, which are commonly found in smartphones and laptops to this day, and, to a lesser extent, cylindrical NCA cells were the dominant forces in the secondary cell market.
But as we head into the 2020s the older LFP technology is making a comeback in larger cells which are now becoming important due to the growing EV market. Tesla, for example, utilizes large LFP cells.
Challenges are that larger prismatic cells may grow hotter and so a cooling system for them is required, for instance, liquid cooling. But they are not as fragile as pouch cells, and, due to their size are, today in 2021, able to hold upwards of 200 Ah capacity each.